For greenhouse vegetables to achieve high yield and quality, special attention should be paid to maintaining their own operating balance in the growth process, a good balance in order to improve the growth rate and immune function; Second, pay attention to nutritional balance; Third, pay attention to the balance between aboveground and underground; The fourth is to pay attention to the balance between reproductive growth and vegetative growth.
To achieve the balance in vegetable production, we must pay attention to the following eight:
First, the seed. According to the season and environmental conditions, such as winter and spring pods should be selected varieties of high temperature, strong light, autumn and winter wolfberry should choose low-temperature, low light varieties; according to environmental conditions and the types of local pests and diseases to choose different varieties of disease; The environmental conditions and market need to choose early or late varieties, product color should be suitable for local consumption habits, high yield and quality at the same time, can make up for market vacancy varieties.
Second, fertilizer. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium needed for vegetables is roughly 2:0.8:4-5. New vegetable fields are generally lack of three elements, the old vegetable fields are sufficient nitrogen and phosphorus and potassium deficiency, vegetables, 16 elements are indispensable, the lack of one, poor vegetable growth, affecting yield and quality. Therefore, fertilization should pay attention to four aspects, first, nutrition should be comprehensive, and vigorously promote the use of a variety of components of vegetable fertilizer; second is to promote hole fertilizer, increase utilization, and induce deep rooting; Third, timely and appropriate amount of fertilizer, to seize the vegetables needed In the critical period of fertilizer, proper amount of fertilizer is applied, but it is not a matter of time; the fourth is scientific balanced fertilization.
Third, the temperature. Understand and understand the temperature of various types of vegetables in various stages of birth, and timely control. The general photosynthetic temperature of vegetables is 20-30Â°C. For example, the common thermophilic vegetables such as eggplant, cucumber, cowpea, sweet pepper, and tomato are required to have a photosynthetic temperature of 25-32Â°C. Cold-tolerant vegetables such as cabbage, summer squash, celery, and leeks And garlic, etc. is 20 Â°C; flower bud differentiation suitable temperature is 20-24 Â°C; nutrient operation before the middle of the night, the suitable temperature is about 18 Â°C; the latter half of night respiration, suitable temperature is 12-10 Â°C; temperature is too high or too low Good for high yields.
Fourth, light. Every growth and formation stage of vegetable products has a ceiling on the light intensity. For example, the leeks and kidney beans are 25,000 lux, the sweet peppers and celery are 30000 lei, the cabbage and eggplant are 40000 lei, and the cucumbers and zucchini are 60000 lei. The tomato is 70,000 lei. The intensity of light exceeds the upper and lower limits, and the yield and quality of vegetables decline. Therefore, cucumbers and zucchini are said to have been "lost in June," and leeks are said to have "June éŸ, stinky dead dogs," and celery has "June celery, a firewood." The use of purple film in the production of winter, no drip fill light; shading in summer to shade, can increase production by more than 34%.
Fifth, moisture. In the early stage, seedlings are mainly used to control watering and promote roots of the seedlings. In the middle stage, watering is performed with good quality and high water yield. Watering times at the later stage are less, but water is poured, the ground and the ground are kept in balance, and vegetative growth is achieved. Reproductive growth maintains balance to prevent over-infestation or debilitating the soil.
Six, gas. In the protected area, excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer will make vegetables prone to ammonia, carbon monoxide poisoning. Therefore, in the application of nitrogen fertilizer should pay attention to the amount and method of application, ammonium bicarbonate does not exceed 5 kg per acre, human waste does not exceed 500 kg, chicken manure base fat does not exceed 5000 kg, top dressing does not exceed 300 kg, pay attention to the application of deep cover soil As well. After one hour before sunrise in the morning, it can be used for ventilation. The vegetables can use the carbon dioxide exhaled at night for photosynthesis.
Seventh, density. According to different vegetable varieties, seasons, pruning methods and fertility conditions, the appropriate density should be controlled flexibly. Varieties with less branches should be closely planted. Varieties with more branches should be sparsely planted. Vegetables in winter and spring crops should be sparsely planted, and autumn and winter vegetables should be closely planted. The use of double-stalked pruning and three-stalked pruning should be sparse; single-stalked pruning should be closely planted; soil with high soil strength should be sparsely planted, and soil with low soil strength should be densely planted.
Eight, pesticides. Before the onset of disease, it is necessary to meet the various types of nutrition needed for vegetables in order to improve the plant's own immune capacity. For example, viral diseases are generally related to zinc deficiency and silicon deficiency. Fungal diseases are generally related to potassium deficiency and boron deficiency, and bacterial diseases and calcium deficiency. Copper deficiency. Secondly, prevention and control measures should be taken from temperature and humidity control, water control and ventilation, air permeability, and fertilization and cultivating, to create a balanced and balanced ecological environment that can prevent disease and increase production. The third consideration is to use what kind of fungicide, to achieve the right medicine, anti-virus can not use anti-fungal, in order to achieve a good control effect. When selecting pesticides, pay attention to whether the expenses for control and prevention are less than the losses caused by prevention and control; the toxicity and safety interval of selected pesticides should be clearly understood.
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