How to improve the problem of fruit tree fertilization

The amount of fertilization is not scientific and the standards for fertilization are difficult to unify everywhere. Most farmers rely only on their experience and reference data to fertilize, and often there are too many nitrogen fertilizers, resulting in difficulty in tree growth and flowering; some of them are too many to cause symptoms of zinc deficiency. Some excessive potassium fertilizer, resulting in calcium deficiency and other physiological symptoms.

Improvement measures: The original outdated fertilization standard should be abandoned. The amount of organic fertilizer applied per acre must be measured on a square scale basis. Do not use pounds or kilograms. Organic fertilizers cannot be measured by weight because of the difference in types and dryness and humidity. The amount of chemical fertiliser should be determined according to the yield and quality. The nitrogen fertilizer should be less in the young trees. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be balanced in the big year. According to the difference in geology, the amount of various elements consumed in each year is 20%. ~30%. According to research by Liu Wanliang and other fruit trees stations in Laiyang, Shandong, the apple yields 2500kg of apples and 3 to 5 squares of organic fertilizer is required. For every 100kg of apples produced, 1.5kg of nitrogen, 0.8kg of phosphorus, and 1.25kg of potassium are required, equivalent to 3.26kg of urea equivalent to fertilizer. 5kg16% superphosphate, 2.5kg potassium sulfate. According to Jia Jingxian of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, for every 2500kg of pears produced, organic fertilizer is required to produce 3 to 12 kg of nitrogen (26 to 28 kg of urea), 8 kg of phosphorus (16% of superphosphate, 50 kg), and 10 kg of potassium per mu. (equivalent to potassium sulfate 20kg). According to Feng Mingxiang, from Qingdao Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Shandong Province, on the basis of the organic fertilizer in the Mushi 3rd Party of Taoyuan High-yield Garden, it is necessary to topdress urea 38 to 43.5kg, 16% superphosphate 75-95kg, and potassium sulfate 55.6kg.

Unreasonable use of fertilizers Fruit trees require many elements, of which nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the most important. The apple, pear, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ratios were 1:0.5:1 and peach was 10:3 to 4:13-16. Many fruit growers in production only pay attention to nitrogen and phosphorus, neglect potassium and trace elements, resulting in difficult to improve the quality of fruit, the size of the phenomenon is serious.

Ways to improve: To apply the three elements in a reasonable and scientific manner on the basis of sufficient organic manure. If there are symptoms of deficiency, they must be supplemented with organic fertilizers to supplement trace elements or sprayed on the roots. Conditional fertilization can be carried out.

Many scientists and peasants have not paid much attention to autumn basal fertilization. They also pay little attention to fertilizer application in stages, which will directly affect fruit quality and yield.

Improvement measures: The advantages of autumn basal fertilization: First, fruit trees can absorb fertilizers that are applied to reserves during the peak period of autumn root growth. The second is the use of basal fertilisers in the fall. The broken roots can heal in time and have little effect on the tree vigor. The basal fertilization in the spring is the opposite, and the applied fertilizer cannot be absorbed and utilized at that time, and when the root breakage is more, the tree vigor is affected, and even the fruit set and flower bud differentiation are affected. The significance of applying fertilizer by stages is also very important. One-time fertilization will inevitably cause the waste of fertilizer and even result in the phenomenon of fertilizer damage. Generally speaking, fertilization period should pay attention to autumn basal fertilization, 60%-80% of the phosphate fertilizer, should be applied in the form of basal fertilizer, combined with a small amount of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer, 60% of nitrogen fertilizer applied in spring, summer young fruit expansion period and flower bud differentiation stage topdressing The appropriate amounts of NPK, most of the K fertilizer should be applied 20 days before fruit enlargement and fruit coloring.

Improper use of fertilization and watering Many fruit growers pay more attention to fertilization in production, but they often neglect watering work. Although there are a lot of fertilization, soil fertility cannot be maximized due to soil drought, resulting in large fruit production and quality. The degree of influence.

Improvement measures: timely watering after fertilization, and timely watering whenever the soil shows a drought phenomenon. In water-deficient areas, tree-straw mulch can be used to cover soil moisture and increase soil organic matter.

The impact of poor quality fertilizers is a low-quality fertilizer, and organic fertilizers that are not mature are inferior fertilizers. The content of inferior fertilizer is obviously insufficient, or the contained material does not conform to the labeling, and the solubility is poor. After the application, the tree vigor is often weakened, and the effect of fertilizer application is not achieved. After the application of organic fertilizer, the roots were burned when the fertilization site was opened.

Improvement measures: The purchase of chemical fertilizer must go to the regular department. It is necessary to find out if the fertilizer is complete with three certificates and whether there are any provincial-level or higher-level assays, and remember to ask for formal invoices. Organic fertilizer must be cooked before application.

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