Cow Breeding and Management

Cattle belong to singleton animals and their twinning rates range from 0.5% to 4.5%. Generally speaking, a cow can produce at most one year. The breeding and management of breeding cows directly affects the number of cows that eventually produce cows and the growth of calves, which affects the development of the beef industry. Therefore, we need to know about cow breeding. Some knowledge about feeding.
First, estrus and its identification Generally speaking beef cattle breeds from 6 to 9 months of age, yellow cattle breeds from 8 to 15 months of age from the beginning of the first heat, 1 breeding age in the first play when the fence can not be mated, because cows at this time It is in a vigorous growth stage. At this time, mating will affect the growth and development of the fetus, and affect the growth and development of the cow itself, especially the development of bones and internal organs, thus affecting the lifelong reproductive capacity of the cow.
2. Estrus identification of estrus cows, if not pregnant, under normal circumstances will be repeated after a period of time. The occurrence of estrus occurs from the beginning of the estrus to the beginning of the next estrous cycle called the estrus cycle. The average estrus cycle of adult cows is 21 days; the range is 18 to 24 days.
Second, pregnancy and childbirth
1. After pregnancy diagnosis and mating, it is necessary to judge whether the cow is conceived as early as possible in order to strengthen the fetus maintenance work for cattle that have been subjected to fetuses, and for empty-grass cows to pay attention to the next breeding in time, so as to increase the reproductive rate of the cows. The external observation method and rectal examination method are often used in production. The external observation method has certain reference value only for cows with regular estrus, and some obvious appearance symptoms are only evident in the middle and later stages of pregnancy and can not be diagnosed early. Therefore, the rectal examination method is widely used now, but the rectal examination method requires skilled techniques. Otherwise, it cannot be diagnosed normally and it is easy to cause bovine miscarriage.
2. Expected date Estimated cow's gestation period is generally 270-285 days, with an average of 280 days. For 280 days, we can estimate the expected date of birth by adding 9 for the last breeding date and month. For example, when a cow was last mated on August 26th, 1996, the expected date of production was 8+9=17 months, which would be 12 months if it was subtracted from the month of the following year. The date of 27+9=36 will be deducted from the 31 days of May. On the 5th of the month, the cow's expected date of production is June 5, 1997.
Third, delivery and midwifery
(1) Pregnancy signs Cows' appetite is diminished or discontinued, and the performance is unnerving. It is often disturbed to review the abdomen and the frequency of defecation and urination increases. It can also be seen that breast enlargement, labia swelling, and depression on both sides of the tail root 1 to 2 days before delivery.
(2) Midwifery and calving is a normal physiological process. Generally, dystocia does not occur. However, it is more likely that the first-produced cows and the cattle with large-scale beef cattle are difficult to produce. The principle of midwifery is to do their best to protect the mother. Cows and yaks have to take care of their mothers and nurses, but also to avoid birth canal infections and injuries to protect the normal fecundity of cows. When the cows can stand up in midwifery, they should stand on Baoding. They should be low and high. If they cannot stand, they should take a left position and raise their hindquarters.
Fourth, newborn yak care
(1) Wipe the mucus in the mucus and nasal cavity with a gauze or a clean towel to dry the mucus on the body surface. Some calves stop breathing after they are born, but the heart is still beating and should be rescued immediately by wiping the mouth and nasal mucus first. After picking up the hind limbs, pat the chest and pour the remaining mucus. After the calf sits supine, hold the forelimb, and repeatedly flexion and extension to start breathing.
(2) Cut the umbilicus and remove the soft hooves. After the yak is born, the umbilical cord is often able to tear off. If it does not break off by itself, it can be cut with a sterile scissors at a distance of 5 cm from the abdomen, and the stump is fully sterilized with iodine, and then the soft hooves of the yak's limbs are stripped.

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