Three kinds of four efficient harvesting techniques in a greenhouse

The annual micro-watermelon (two pods) - summer tomato - winter vegetables (lettuce, garland chrysanthemum, spinach) annual three kinds of four harvest cultivation technology model. In January, micro watermelons in greenhouses were grafted with nutrients, planted in February, and harvested in April. After the harvest, they were strengthened to manage. After the harvest, they were harvested from late May to early June, and the watermelons were withdrawn after the harvest. membrane. At the end of May and early June, the nursery of tomatoes was planted in the greenhouse at the end of June. The tomatoes were harvested in mid-October. Then they were planted with the wintering vegetables. In the first half of November, the greenhouse film was buckled. After the harvest at the end of December, fertilization was performed and the mini watermelon was prepared.
1. Micro-watermelon cultivation technology selection of early watermelon, high quality, low temperature resistance, strong results, disease resistance, good commercial quality, high sugar content varieties, such as Xiaolan, Jinlian, Xia Lian, Yu Linglong and so on.
Nutrient grafting and nursery: Great cold solar terms (January 20 to 21) Prepare prepared nutrient soil (6 parts of sterile sandy loam, 4 parts of mature organic fertilizer, plus 0.1% of ternary compound fertilizer and appropriate amount of carbendazim) Into the nutrition, the rootstock seeds (vegetable gourds) were picked, soaked in warm water for 10 hours, and then placed under the conditions of 25 ~ 28 °C germination, washing once a day, after germination, the seeds were sowed in the nutrient bowl. The seeds of watermelon seeds that sowed in the same nutrient bowl within 2 days were kept at 25-28°C during the day and above 20°C at night. When the first true leaves of rootstock seedlings were unfolded, the grafting time was appropriate for the cotyledon cotyledon. Grafting by grafting, returning to the seedbed after grafting, and watering in time. Seed water saturation, the first three days pay attention to insulation, moisturizing, avoid light, kept at 25 ~ 28 °C during the day, not less than 20 °C at night, cut off the watermelon roots 7 days later. When the third true leaf appeared on the grafted seedlings, the hardening seedlings were transplanted.
Apply base fertilizer, timely colonization: When the seedling age is 45 days or so, select sunny days 9 to 10 am when planting in the greenhouse, before planting, settling soil fertilization, decompose chicken manure 3500 kg per mu, calcium superphosphate 60 ~ 80 kg, sulfuric acid Potassium 20 to 25 kg, deep-turn 30 cm, after squatting level by 50 cm, 70 cm ridge, ridge height 15 cm, ridge width 30 cm. Seedlings were watered 2 days before planting to reduce root damage during transplanting. Plant spacing 40 cm, a “+” character is drawn on the mulch in the location of the melon planting, single planting, the grafting interface should be exposed on the mulch.
Management after planting: 5 to 7 days after planting, the greenhouse must be sealed. During the day, the temperature of the greenhouse should be maintained at 25 to 28°C and not less than 15°C at night to promote seedling growth. Air humidity is about 50% during the day and 80% at night. In the melon period, photosynthesis is strong, the daytime temperature is controlled at 25-35°C, nighttime is 15-20°C, the temperature difference between day and night is 10-15°C, and the air humidity is 50%-60%, if the humidity in the watering shed is too high , Through ventilation, reduce humidity.
Appropriate top-dressing: the first top-dressing period in the regimental period, generally per acre topped with cooked bean cake 75 to 100 kg; the second topdressing after sitting in a melon, per acre furrow or acupuncture application Sanyuan compound fertilizer 50 to 60 kg or Urea, potassium sulfate, superphosphate 20 ~ 25 kg each. The third round of topdressing before and after the basic shaping of the body, foliar spray of available fertilizer and trace fertilizer, spraying 0.5 kg urea and 0.1 kg of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to 50 kg per mu, spraying once every 6 to 7 days, even spraying 2 times. After the first crop is harvested, the fertilizer is applied in a timely manner to promote the growth of the second crop.
Timely and appropriate amount of watering: After the melon seedlings are planted, the amount of watering before reaching the vines should not be too large. When the melon seedlings appear as a droughty elephant, they can uncover the membranes from the plants and open the ditch and pour water. Flowering fruiting period does not water. When the young larvae grow to large eggs, it is necessary to pour water in small quantities to keep the ground moist. After the watermelon is set, water is poured every 5 to 7 days, and irrigation is stopped 7 to 10 days before harvesting.
Plant adjustment: Using the triple vine pruning method, when the main vine grows to 50 cm, it can be used for hanging vines, leaving two robust side vines to grow, and when they grow to 100-150 cm, the growing point is destroyed. The second or third female flower is selected when staying in the melon. When the second female flower grows to the size of the egg, the first female flower is removed, and 15 leaves are left before the melon and the growing point is removed. About 20 days after flowering, the first melon leaves two melons. Watermelon is an insect-borne flower. Artificial pollination is required in the greenhouse. It takes place from 8 to 10 am. It is better to pollinate with a couple of male flowers and a female flower. Watermelon artificial pollination time is preferably 7 days, not more than 10 days. The pollinated female flowers are hung with pollination date cards. According to the number of days from the flowering to the maturity of each watermelon variety and the date of pollination of each melon, timely harvest in batches.
Pest Control: Pest prevention and control should be based on prevention and implement comprehensive prevention and control. Powdery mildew can be used at the beginning of spraying 500 times the solution of the positive and negative sides of the leaf, spray 3 days, continuous spraying 3 to 5 times. The prevention of wilt disease mainly involves the cultivation and grafting of non-continuous cropping plots. The control of whitefly adults can be extinguished 330 grams in the evening to close the shed fumigation, spray sputazolyl 25% WP 1500 times or Buluoxing 10% EC 1000 times for the control of whitefly have special effects, especially with tobacco 3 to 4 days after the agent was smoked and then sprayed with buprofezin, the efficacy was nearly 100%.
2. Tomato cultivation techniques over the summer Tomato should use strong growth, strong resistance, good quality, resistance to storage and transportation varieties, such as Jiuhua tomato, hair powder 802, the United States scarlet, Israel FA ~ 189 and so on.
Seedlings: Four seedlings are used to prevent seedlings, mainly against heat, rain, leggy, and virus diseases. The seedlings are planted at the end of May and early June. The seedbed for mu needs 5 to 7 square meters (bed width: 1 to 1.5 meters), and 40 to 50 grams for mu. A seedbed is built on the side of the greenhouse, nutrient soil is prepared, and the soil is disinfected. The seeds are soaked, rubbed, and debris removed. The seeds are soaked in warm water for 5 hours and then soaked in a 1% solution of formalin for 15 to 20 minutes. Wrap with a damp cloth, seal it for 2 to 3 hours, remove it with clean water, and then wrap it in a damp cloth and put it in a temperature of 28 to 30°C for 2 to 3 days. Fill the bottom water, mix the seed and fine soil thoroughly, and sow evenly in the seedbed, cover 0.5 to 1 cm of fine soil. Every day from 9 to 16 hours after sowing, blankets are covered (light transmittance is about 70%), and the film is covered with rain before the rain. Attention should be paid to the regulation of water, to control mainly, to promote control and integration, so that the seedlings see dry see wet. In order to prevent seedlings from infecting the virus, weeds should be sprayed around the seedbeds. Every 2 to 3 days, we should spray and control roundworms around the seedbeds to prevent infectious diseases, and to prevent seedlings after infection. The seedlings should be 4 to 8 cm apart.
Soil preparation and application of base fertilizer: after the mini-watermelon picking in late June, 5,000 kg of high-quality organic fertilizer, 40 kg of superphosphate, 50 kg of ternary compound fertilizer per acre, and deep-turning 25 cm will be poured. Leveling, made of stilts, 10 cm high, 70 cm wide, and 30 cm wide.
Proper colonization: In late June, seedlings reach 5 to 6 true leaves when planted (watering of tomato seedlings is stopped 3 to 4 days before planting), with a small row spacing of 45 cm (sorghum), a large row spacing of 55 cm, and a spacing of 30 cm. 4,000 to 4,500 acres were cut. When transplanting, the seedlings grow southwards and their heads are tilted 45 degrees to the north to get more roots. 9 to 16 o'clock every day to cover the shade of the shade, cover the film before the rain storm chong seedlings. After mid-August, shade blankets will no longer be covered.
Field management: (1) fertilizer and water management. After the planting, the seedlings were irrigated with water, the spraying of pesticides to control aphids, 3 to 5 days after the start of growth and then pouring a larvae, after the seedlings were sowed, they were 1-2 times. When the first fruit has the size of grapes, 25 kg of ammonium phosphate and 10 kg of potassium sulfate are applied per acre and watered after fertilization. When the second ear grows to the size of the grape, 20 kg of DAP is applied per mu. After fruiting, watering should be dry and wet. After harvesting the first and second ear, 10 kg of diammonium phosphate and 5 kg of potassium sulfate were applied per acre. (2) Protect the fruit. Every morning after the flowering of the tomato, use a brush to draw 2, 4 ~ D15 ~ 20 mg / L liquid coating stalk, or with 5 ~ 10 mg / liter of tomato Ling spray spike fruit. The first ear retains 2 fruits and the second ear retains 3 fruits. When 2 or 3 ear are left per plant, 3 to 4 leaves are topping. The fruit grows to fruit size when it reaches the size of the grapes. (3) Pruning vines on shelves. Using single stem pruning, lateral branches, lateral buds removed in a timely manner, fine hemp rope hanging vines. (4) Pest control. The virus disease can be sprayed with 2% of bacteria, 200 grams of grams of germs, and 200 to 250 times of spray; the early blight can be sprayed with 1% of Wuyimycin water at 150-200 times; the gray mold can be treated with 800 times of gray nucleus; The flies can be sprayed with 48% of Lothian EC 600 to 800 times; the aphids can be sprayed at 50% with a 3000 times solution; the bollworms are treated with a 15% waterborne suspension at 3500-4000 times. Once in 7 days, spray 3 times and stop spraying 7 days before harvest. (5) Harvesting and replacement. After the tomatoes were harvested in mid-October, they were planted by picking up vinegar, removing fallen leaves, soil preparation, fertilizing, changing greenhouse films, and disinfecting the greenhouse.
3. Lettuce lettuce cultivation technology selection Cold-resistant, disease-resistant mid-maturing varieties, such as avant-garde 75.
Cultivate strong seedlings: bed and soil for fine crushing, 1 m2 for composting 10-20 kg of organic fertilizer and 0.025 kg of diammonium phosphate. In mid-September, seedling nursery seedlings use 25-30 grams per acre, planting acre seedlings per acre of 25 to 30 square meters. Put enough water before sowing. After the water seeps, spread a fine soil of about 3 to 4 mm thick. Then spread the seeds and sow. Cover the soil about 1 cm. Cover the film after sowing. The leaves of the seedlings were hypertrophic, and the true leaves began to spit out the membranes and watered on the day.
Colonization: 4 to 6 true leaves, seedling age 30 days. Before planting in the shed, per acre, the quality of manure is 3,000 to 5,000 kilograms, fine soil preparation, 1.5 meters wide sorghum, planting 4 lines, spacing 40 cm, plant spacing 25 cm, planting about 6000 per acre, not deep planting, seedlings The soil surface is slightly flat or slightly lower than the ground and watered after planting.
Field Management: (1) Watering. When there is a large amount of water in the peak of growth, the watering must be sufficient. When the ball is started, it is necessary to ensure the plant's need for water, but also to control the humidity in the field should not be too large, after the ball is formed, control the water to prevent the ball and rotten heart . (2) Dressing. The beginning of the ball is 5-7 kg of urea per acre, 15-20 days later, the application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer 15-20 kg; when the heart is curly, apply compound fertilizer 20 kg. (3) film. In early November, the greenhouses were covered with membranes, with attention paid to ventilation. During the day, the temperature was controlled at 18 to 20°C and the night temperature was controlled at about 12 to 15°C. (4) Pest control. Can spray 70% thiophanate-methyl 600 to 800 times liquid control gray mold every 7 to 10 days once, and even spray 3 to 4 times. One million units neemectin powder 4000 to 5000 times to prevent soft rot. In the evening, 50% phoxim emulsion 800 to 1000 times to irrigate the root can control underground tigers, earthworms and other underground pests. (5) Harvest. From December to January of the next year, timely harvest.

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