Crayfish breeding technology

Crayfish is a generic name for some species of river shrimp. At present, there are more than 300 species of crayfish in the world. Except for Africa, they are distributed all over the world and are widely distributed shrimps. The crayfish currently produced in various parts of the country are crustaceans, also known as red crawfish or red marsh crawfish. Some local consumers call it lobster. In fact, crawfish and lobster are two completely different types of shrimp, so it is misnamed. Clarke crawfish is native to the United States and was introduced to Japan in 1918 and was introduced to China during the Second World War. Because of its adaptability to the environment and its strong resistance to disease, it can thrive in various waters such as rivers, lakes, ponds, and paddy fields, and it quickly spreads and spreads widely throughout the country. Currently, the output of crawfish in the Jiangsu region has been considerable. It is estimated that the annual output will be 10,000 tons or more. In addition to the fresh supply each year, the coastal areas and the areas where the production of Hongze and loquat are concentrated and concentrated, they are also processed into frozen shrimp, and they are processed into European and American countries. Exports are popular and have thus become an industry in which local farmers can get rid of poverty and become rich. Crawfish is rich in nutrients, and the protein content of shrimp is about 16%. Its high meat content, which is generally 20%, and its delicious meat taste, has long been a European and American country, especially the United States and France. Delicious food. As these countries consume large amounts, they are imported from foreign countries every year. In recent years, people in our country have also liked to eat crawfish, so the products are in a state of supply shortage. At present, China's crawfish, mainly from the capture of natural resources, production is very unstable. However, due to the large individual crawfish, rapid growth, strong fertility, simple feeding methods, easy to grasp feeding technology, low investment and high yield, according to the data, the current annual output of the United States crayfish cultivation up to 50 to 70 kg, and in recent years, domestic The retail price of every 500 grams of the market is in the range of 8 to 10 yuan. If it can be processed and sold, the price is higher, so it is profitable. If it can be cultivated artificially, the development prospect is very broad. Some countries in Europe and America began to breed crawfish as early as the 21st century. In the 1960s, the United States used crawfish culture as an important part of agriculture in Louisiana. By 1985, the crayfish aquaculture area in the United States had reached 50,000. Hectares; Crawfish aquaculture development in Australia is also very fast, and there are now more than 300 crawfish farms across the country. China has a vast territory and there are many lakes and wetlands. The masses also have rich experience in cultivating fresh shrimp, prawns and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The development of crawfish farming has a good foundation and can achieve very good results. (A) The crawfish breeding method is generally divided into extensive breeding, semi-intensive breeding and intensive breeding. (II) Semi-intensive culture of ponds This is currently the main breeding mode in the United States and Australia, and the development of breeding is promising. (1) Pond conditions Pond area should not be too large, generally 3 to 5 acres is appropriate; water depth can be 30 to 70 centimeters can be, do not be too deep; pond soil requires loam or clay loam as well; crawfish to the pool As digging up the burrows, the levees used to feed crayfish ponds should be wide and have a large gradient. The dykes constructed in this way have larger shallow beach feet, which are convenient for crayfish feeding and digging caves. (2) Cultivation of aquatic plants in shrimp ponds Before the stocking of shrimps from April to May, the pond water should be drained to 20 to 30 cm, and then some water peanuts, black leaf algae, and malayan eyes should be planted at the bottom of the pond and at the foot of dike shallow water beach. Vegetable and other aquatic plants. When aquatic plants are grown, they can be used as a shelter for clams, habitats and clam shells; they can also be used as natural foods for crayfish growth. The area where aquatic plants are grown covers approximately 1/3 to 1/2 of the area of ​​the bottom of the pool. (3) Shrimp rearing is generally at the end of May and early June. Commercial crayfish come onto the market in large quantities. This stage coincides with the season of crawfish gonadal maturation. Some broodstocks with good gonadal development can be selected and put into the shrimp ponds. Natural breeding spawning. The broodstock is 25 to 30 grams in size, about 300 broodstock per acre, and a ratio of 1:1 for males and females. (4) Feeding and management of shrimp ponds The management of shrimp ponds is mainly to regulate water quality, control water levels and feed artificial baits. In the early stage of the crawfish pool, shallow water is preferable, and the water depth is 30 centimeters. From September, fresh water must be gradually added to the crayfish pool to ensure that the hatched juveniles have good water quality and sufficient water volume, and finally make the water depth Up to 90 cm so far. Due to the high density of artificially reared crawfish, aquatic plants can not meet the needs. Therefore, some terrestrial and aquatic plants must be supplemented and fed from outside the pool. In addition, crawfish also prefer to feed on snails, cocoons and cockroaches. Some animals such as fly maggots and bean cakes, rice bran, distiller's grains, and other plant foods, so the above-mentioned bait can be used as a ratio of 20% to 30% for animal diets and 70% to 80% for plant diets, and some bone meal and husk powder can be added. With the appropriate amount of trace elements, they are processed into granular food to feed the crawfish. Crayfish like to eat. The grain bait should be placed at the beginning of shallow ponds in shrimp ponds. With the growth of the shrimps, the range of activities and feeding of shrimps will gradually expand, and the feeding sites should shift from shallow water areas to deep water areas. Since crawfish are not tolerant to hunger, it is better to feed a few times more often. It is generally advisable to use 1 time in the afternoon, 30% in the morning, and 70% in the afternoon. During the entire feeding period, observe the shrimp activities frequently. When it is found that the crawfish activity is dull and often swims around the pool, it is necessary to add new water to the pool in time. Sometimes the water change method is adopted, that is, the water pump is used to pump the bottom of the pond. Go to some of the old oxygen-deficient water, and then replace the new one. Normally change the water once a week, change the water one-third each time, and if necessary, activate the oxygen aerator to improve the water quality. (5) The start of catching of commercial shrimp began at the end of November. When the shrimp that were bred in that year had basically grown to the specifications of about 30 grams of commercial shrimp, the temperature gradually decreased and the growth of shrimp would stop. Shrimp was sold together with the old shrimps that had produced eggs that year and the arrests continued until March to April in the second year.

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